Of course, different stakeholders’ expectations can diverge dramatically, which makes the task of determining acceptable norms especially difficult. When GlaxoSmithKline pioneered the development of anti-retroviral drugs to combat AIDS, its reputation for conducting cutting-edge research and product development was reinforced and shareholders were pleased. They were initially on board when GSK led a group of pharmaceutical companies in suing the South African government after it passed legislation in 1997 allowing the country to import less expensive, generic versions of AIDS drugs covered by GSK patents. But in 2001, GSK shareholders did an about-face in reaction to an intensifying campaign waged by NGOs and to the trial proceedings, which made GSK and the other drug companies look greedy and immoral. With its reputation plunging, GSK relented and granted a South African company a free license to manufacture generic versions of its AIDS drugs—but the damage was already done.