Testing on animals research paper

Pharmacokinetic/toxicokinetic tests measure the rates of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of toxic substances. Some chemicals are inactivated by metabolism while others become more toxic as they are metabolized. Animals, usually rats or mice, are given single or multiple doses of test substances through forcefeeding, inhalation, intravenous injection, or through the skin and blood samples are taken to determine the rates of absorption, distribution, excretion, and metabolism. The animals are then killed and examined for the accumulation of the test chemicals in their organs. The differences between species and the amount and type of liver enzymes they possess makes it difficult to properly extrapolate human test data from these animal tests. Unfortunately, no non-animal alternative test method has been reviewed or approved for metabolism and pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics. Dermal Penetration

There are already many alternatives to animals which have been developed, particularly in the areas of toxicity testing and teaching. Developments have occurred most rapidly and effectively in countries in which the use of animals is prohibited. The use of alternatives may involve the use of the same experimental goals, but using instead techniques which may include cell cultures or computer programs, or it may involve changing the experimental aim altogether, such as eliminating an animal based experiment and replacing it with a clinical experiment involving humans.

The Spending Power The other mechanism through which the federal government has lent its support to the humane treatment of animals is not strictly speaking legislative in nature, but in many respects it is one of the most powerful instruments available to the federal government for setting national standards. The federal government's power to provide for grants subject to conditions imposed on the recipients, be they provincial governments or individual or corporate recipients, may take a variety of different forms. One form is that of the conditional federal grant or contract. This manifestation of the federal power is what currently underpins the imposition of CCAC standards on facilities receiving funding from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council. Where the government itself awards a contract on an academic or non-academic institution, clause A9015C of Public Works Standard Acquisition Clauses and Conditions Manual imposes conditions related to the care and use of experimental animals in public works and government services. [45]

Antivivisectionists of the era believed the spread of mercy was the great cause of civilization, and vivisection was cruel. However, in the ., the antivivisectionists' efforts were defeated in every legislature because of the widespread support of an informed public for the careful and judicious use of animals. The early antivivisectionist movement in the . dwindled greatly in the 1920s, potentially caused by a variety of factors including the opposition of the medical community, enormous improvements in medicine through the use of animals, and the tendency of the antivivisectionists to misrepresentation and exaggeration, and their use of inaccurate, vague and outdated references. Overall, this movement had no US legislative success. The passing of the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act, in 1966 was more focused on protecting the welfare of animals that are used in all fields, including research, food production, consumer product development, etc. [57] [58]

Testing on animals research paper

testing on animals research paper

Antivivisectionists of the era believed the spread of mercy was the great cause of civilization, and vivisection was cruel. However, in the ., the antivivisectionists' efforts were defeated in every legislature because of the widespread support of an informed public for the careful and judicious use of animals. The early antivivisectionist movement in the . dwindled greatly in the 1920s, potentially caused by a variety of factors including the opposition of the medical community, enormous improvements in medicine through the use of animals, and the tendency of the antivivisectionists to misrepresentation and exaggeration, and their use of inaccurate, vague and outdated references. Overall, this movement had no US legislative success. The passing of the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act, in 1966 was more focused on protecting the welfare of animals that are used in all fields, including research, food production, consumer product development, etc. [57] [58]

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testing on animals research papertesting on animals research papertesting on animals research papertesting on animals research paper