In the United States in October 1993, the National Rifle Association (NRA) ran a 4-page ad in the center of its American Rifleman magazine, the first page of which showed goose-stepping , jackbooted legs under the question, "What's the First Step to a Police State?"  Two years later, the NRA's executive vice-president, Wayne LaPierre , sparked controversy when he referred to federal agents as "jackbooted government thugs" in an NRA fund-raising letter. The term had been coined by United States Representative John David Dingell Jr., Democrat of Michigan, in 1981.  Such statements prompted former . president George . Bush to resign his membership in the organization soon after.