Job analysis encompasses a number of different methods. [ citation needed ] It primarily involves the systematic collection of information about a job. A task-oriented job analysis involves an examination of the duties, tasks, and/or competencies required by the job being assessed. By contrast, a worker-oriented job analysis involves an examination of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required to successfully perform the work. Information obtained from job analyses are used for many purposes, including the creation of job-relevant selection procedures, performance appraisals and the criteria they require, and the development of training programs.
Novell and Lotus supplied the two largest software directory systems. Each of these companies started with flat account and directory structures, and encountered the support and name-conflict limitations inherent in their flat structures. They adopted the OU concept into their next-generation software around 1993 – Novell with the release of Novell Directory Services (subsequently known as eDirectory), and Lotus with the release of the third version of Lotus Notes. Microsoft allegedly used Novell's directory as a blueprint for the first released versions of AD, but this claim appears suspect, given that served as the "granddaddy" of all directory systems.