Chloroquine resistant bacteria dissertation

One of the major threats to malaria control and elimination efforts is the ongoing spread and emergence of resistance towards commonly used antimalarial drugs to treat P. falciparum and P. vivax infections. Whilst our understanding of drug resistant P. falciparum is quite well understood, the extent and nature of resistance in P. vivax parasites is for the most part is unknown. One of the reasons for this is the difficulty in interpreting P. vivax clinical efficacy studies. Unlike P. falciparum , P. vivax forms hypnozoite liver stages that can lie dormant in the liver for many years before re-emerging. Hence recurrent parasitaemia following treatment can represent recrudescence (the same parasite), reinfection (a new infection) or relapses (an infection arising from the dormant liver stage). Current genotyping methods are unable to distinguish between these patient responses.

[1] Sharma I, Aneja M. K, Biswas S, Dev V., Ansari , Pasha , Sharma . Allelic variation in the cg2 gene does not correlate with chloroquine resistance among Indian Plasmodium falciparum isolates. Int J Parasitol. 2001 Dec; 31(14):1669-72.

[2] Mita T, Kaneko A, Lum JK, Bwijo B, Takechi M, Zungu IL, Tsukahara T, Tanabe K, Kobayakawa T, Bjorkman A: Recovery of chloroquine sensitivity and low prevalence of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene mutation K76T following the discontinuance of chloroquine use in Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2003, 68:413-415 [Graph http:///research/genetic-diversity-and-malaria-drug-and-vaccine-efficacy ]

[3] Slater AF Chloroquine: mechanism of drug action and resistance in Plasmodium falciparum . Pharmacol Ther. 1993 Feb-Mar; 57(2-3):203-.

[4] Centers for Disease Control. "The History of Malaria, an Ancient Disease". 2012

[5] N. J. White. Qinghaosu (Artemisinin): The Price of Success. Science 18 April 2008: Vol. 320 no. 5874 pp. 330-334.

[6] Basco LK, Ringwald P. Chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and polymorphism of the CG2 gene. J Infect Dis. 1999 Dec; 180(6):1979-86.

[7] Vale Nuno, Aguiar Luísa, Gomes Paula. Antimicrobial peptides: a new class of antimalarial drugs? 2014. Frontiers in Pharmacology. vol. 5 DOI=/

[8] Martin RE, Marchetti RV, Cowan AI et al. "Chloroquine transport via the malaria parasite's chloroquine resistance transporter". Science 325 (5948): 1680–1682.

[9] Health Organization (2010). Guidelines for the treatment of malaria (2nd ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization.

[10] Mark F. Wiser. Mechanisms of Drug Action and Resistance. University

[11] Parasites in humans. 2010

[12] Centers for Disease Control. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012

[13] Chinappi M, Via A., Marctili P., and Tramontano A. "On the Mechanism of Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum ." 2010. PLoS ONE 5(11): e14064. doi:/.

[14] Green wood B., Mutabingwa T. Malaria in 2002. Nature (2002) 415 670-672.

[15] World Health Organization. 2015

[16] E1, McMillan PJ, Tilley L. Cellular architecture of Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes. Int J Parasitol. 2010 Aug 15; 40 (10):1127-35. pub 2010 May 15.

[17] Malcolm Aitken. Streets Of London: Big Breakthrough On Malaria. 2003. Scoop.

[18] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012), Malaria.

[19] Leann Tilleya, Matthew . Dixona, Kiaran Plasmodium falciparum -infected red blood cell. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 43 (2011) 839–842.

[20] Quinine Dimers Are Potent Inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter and Are Active against Quinoline-Resistant P. falciparum. Christine A. Hrycyna, Robert L. Summers, Adele M. Lehane, Marcos M. Pires, Hilda Namanja, Kelsey Bohn, Jerrin Kuriakose, Michael Ferdig, Philipp P. Henrich, David A. Fidock Kiaran Kirk, Jean Chmielewski, and Rowena E. Martin. ACS Chem. Biol., Article ASAP. DOI: /cb4008953

Chloroquine resistant bacteria dissertation

chloroquine resistant bacteria dissertation

Media:

chloroquine resistant bacteria dissertationchloroquine resistant bacteria dissertationchloroquine resistant bacteria dissertationchloroquine resistant bacteria dissertation